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Wydawnictwo: Pneuma
Nr katalogowy: PN 1240
Nośnik: 1 CD
Data wydania: grudzień 2010
EAN: 8428353512407
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Epoka muzyczna: średniowiecze
Obszar (język): hiszpański
Rodzaj: pieśń

Azahares y Rosas (Orange Blossom And Roses)

Pneuma - PN 1240
Said Belcadi Ensemble:
Said Belcadi, canto, laud
Abdel Ouahid Senhaji, nay
Ahmed Al Gazi, rabab, darbuka
Andalusi Music Music is one of the arts that help us understand the way people feel, and in Andalusi culture it is one of the most beautiful arts because it is closely linked to poetry. "Music and poetry accompany the Muslim from birth to death", according to the poet from Cordoba Ibn ‘Abd ar-Rabbihi (d. 940) in his work ‘Idq al Farid (the Unique Necklace). Andalusi music has reached us through the nubahs, a succession of classical type songs connected by their mode or musical scale. Characterized by their uniform theme content, their order is determined by rhythm and poetic meter.

The arrival of Islam in the Iberian Peninsula was to engender a new historical and cultural phenomenon, Al-Andalus. Cordoba, as the capital of the Caliphate, was the western soul of Islam. It amalgamated the two cultures: Islam and the local culture, and by incorporating Berber and Jewish elements, the harmonious mosaic of Andalusi music was born. The nubah, is a classical composition that originated in the 8th century in the Middle East. It was originally the signal for the musicians’ “turn” to perform before the Caliph, but it was to become the actual musical session of orchestras from al-Andalus. The strophic structures, such as the qasida, Muwashshah and the zajal, these last two created in al-Andalus in the 9th and 11th centuries, form the basis of this refined art. During the Kingdoms of the Taifas, from the 10th to the 12th centuries, music enjoyed its true splendour. Music schools prepared women, both Muslims and Christian, who then became part of the palace and court orchestras. The Andalusi courts in Seville, in Valencia and Murcia and in Almeria, and the court of king al-Ma’mum in Toledo, which included Madrid, had important orchestras of musicians and female singers, poets and poetesses.

These Christian rumiyyâs (female singers) of whom I was so fond, and who brought doves to the tree tops with their singing. al-Mu’tamid of Seville, written in his exile in Agmat

Nubah al-Isbihan Ziryab brought the nubah from Baghdad in the 9th century and it began to take shape during the Umayyad period. It continued to develop during the era of the Taifas kings with Ibn Baya and finally became established during the Nasrid dynasty in Granada. The nubah accompanied the Andalusi people expelled from the Peninsula who went to the Maghreb, where it has stayed for 5 centuries, preserved to the present day. Oral transmission and books by different authors enable us to reconstruct the performance of the nubahs. People like al- Wansharîsî (d. 1549) and al-Fâsî, 1650, and the compilations made by al-Bu’sâmî (17th centurty), al-Hâ’ik (18th century), al-Yâmi’î (19th century) and al- Tadîlî (19th-20th century).

The al-Isbihan nubah is the second in Al-Hâ’ik’s Songbook and he points out that the best moment to perform it is at the end of the night, just before the dawn. Chants full of both secular and divine love, in which melody and text go hand in hand through musical expression. The music reflects the power of the four elements: water, phlegm, the West, the winter, maturity. The signs: Capricorn and Pisces. The melodies: sharp, sublime, tender and sweet. “Oh when he is not lamenting, I love him, he lights up my passion, my desire and my suffering. When you lit me up with al-Isbihan, the eyes of the Houris in Paradise grew stronger as did my weeping”. Al-Hâ’ik (c.1800)

This performance only uses the instruments of the al-Andalus period to accompany the voice. The rebab, (a bowed string instrument with two base strings), is emphasized as a complement to the lute (‘oud) and to the flute (nay). The nubah is presented through some of its most beautiful songs, with others performed instrumentally, including 5 rhythms or mizan that make up the structure

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